Fundamental Questions in Glaucoma

The ‘Fundamental Questions in Glaucoma’ video series is here! Powered by WGA’s Education Committee and featuring easy-to-digest video content, this brand new series of lectures is great for everyone who wants to learn more about glaucoma in minutes.

About the Fundamental Questions in Glaucoma lectures

The Fundamental Questions in Glaucoma is a series of Audio-Visual Modules initiated by the Education Committee of the World Glaucoma Association. These include video-assisted skill transfer on basic techniques of glaucoma lasers and surgery for trainee ophthalmologists, as well as frequently asked questions regarding the diagnosis and management of glaucoma patients.

Expect answers to questions such as:

  • What is the best way to examine the optic nerve for early detection of glaucoma?
  • What visual field testing strategy should I use?
  • How is Suturolysis best performed?
  • How do I perform a selective laser trabeculoplasty for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma?

and much more!

What makes this series of lectures different than others?
Materials submitted by speakers were reviewed by both of the editorial leads, Drs. Tanuj Dada and Pradeep Ramulu, and at least 2 Education Committee members. Thus, these lectures, unlike others have undergone a formal peer review for content completeness and accuracy.

Get access to the key glaucoma insights and view all Fundamental Questions in Glaucoma lectures directly below!

To download the lecture slides and find more information on the lectures and their presenters, go to the WGA Video Library. All you need to do is log in to your WGA#One account or create a free account.

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How to manage late hypotony after glaucoma surgery? | Andrew Tatham[09:46]
A brief guide to the management of late hypotony following glaucoma surgery. The presentation discusses hypotonic following trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device surgery and management options including bleb revision and tube ligation.
How do I improve medication compliance in patients with poor adherence? | Paula Anne Newman-Casey[06:15]
Advocating for team-based care where we train ophthalmic para-professional staff to provide directed, autonomy supportive glaucoma self-management support will improve glaucoma medication adherence. Using best practices including evidence-based interventions, individually tailored education, motivational-interviewing based counseling and reminder systems, we can help people better adhere to their recommended glaucoma medication regimen and improve their vision outcomes.
What is the impact of Glaucoma on quality of life and how to evaluate this? | Amanda Kiely Bicket[05:59]
Glaucoma has the potential to negatively impact patients’ quality of life from earliest diagnosis, even before they experience overt visual symptoms. We serve our patients best by understanding their experiences and priorities, capturing their vision-related quality of life in precise and efficient ways, and continually working to understand and address the impact of glaucoma and … Continue reading
What treatments should I offer a patient newly diagnosed with open angle glaucoma? | Chelvin Sng[10:00]
For newly diagnosed glaucoma, the aim of treatment is to slow or prevent glaucoma progression and to preserve vision-related quality of life during a patient’s lifetime. Lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven and effective treatment and is the mainstay of glaucoma therapy.
How to do an iridotomy? | Winnie Nolan[09:36]
This presentation describes the indications and step by step techniques for performing laser iridotomy in primary angle closure including tips on managing more challenging cases.
How can I tell if a visual field is reliable? | Harsha Rao[06:57]
Deciding the reliability of a visual field is a challenging task mainly due to the subjective nature of the test. Although the visual field report comes with a number of reliability indices, it is known that these reliability indices provide some indication on the reliability of the test but would not provide the complete information … Continue reading
How do I implant a non-valved glaucoma drainage device? | Keith Barton[10:00]
Keith Barton describes his technique of Baerveldt 101-350 insertion with tips and tricks for optimal results.
How do I needle an encysted/failing filtering bleb? | Vital Costa[07:57]
Needling is a procedure commonly used to restore the function of encysted or failing blebs. This video will describe the surgical technique of this procedure, the expected success rates and its complications. After the placement of a lid speculum, the eye is dislocated downwards with the help of a cotton tip or a 7-0 vycril … Continue reading
Postoperative shallow anterior chamber | Sirisha Senthil[06:58]
Trabeculectomy is often associated with postoperative intraocular pressure-related or bleb-related problems. They need to be identified and treated appropriately to preserve the bleb function and prevent serious sight-threatening complications. A common postoperative complication after trabeculectomy (and other drainage surgeries) is shallow anterior chamber, which can be associated with hypotony or high IOP and result from … Continue reading
My glaucoma patient has a visual handicap with severe visual field damage. How can I help them? | Kelly Muir[06:02]
In this talk, Kelly Muir will discuss how we can help our patients with severe visual impairment in our role as the glaucoma physician and also in our role and referring doctor, in collaboration with colleagues in complimentary fields.
Which angle closure eyes benefit from lens removal/cataract surgery? | Augusto Azuara-Blanco[06:22]
This video describes current evidence regarding the role of lens extraction in patients with angle closure. In brief, patients with co-existing angle closure and cataract will benefit from early lens extraction. For those patients with clear lens and significant angle closure disease there is evidence that phacoemulsification is more effective than peripheral laser iridotomy. Combining … Continue reading
How do I treat a bleb-related inflammation? | Vijaya Lingam[06:05]
Bleb associated infection (BAI), found most commonly in thin cystic blebs, is a vision threatening complication after Trabeculectomy. There are three stages of BAI: stage I – blebitis with inflammation confined to bleb, stage II – blebitis with associated anterior chamber reaction but no vitritis, and stage III – blebitis complicated with vitritis. In order … Continue reading
How can I tell if an OCT is reliable? | Donald Hood[05:21]
There are four reasons given as to why the OCT may not accurately reflect a particular patient’s level of damage. Each is only partially true. First, it is believed that arcuate-like artifacts on OCT maps from healthy eyes can be confused with arcuate defects due to glaucoma. In fact, arcuate-like artifacts can be distinguished from … Continue reading
Is glaucoma an asymptomatic disease, or are there visual symptoms? | Pradeep Ramulu[05:36]
While there are many methods too ascertain the severity of glaucoma with various forms of testing (clinical exam, visual fields, OCT imaging), direct patient communication can also help understand the extent to which a patient with suspected or known glaucoma is affected by their disease. In this video and its summary, we discuss at what … Continue reading
Surgical management of nanophthalmos with angle-closure glaucoma | Sharmila Rajendrababu[10:21]
Nanophthalmos is a rare disease with crowded anterior segment and increased scleral thickness. Surgery in Nanophthalmos is often prone for Vision threating complications like Uveal effusions and retinal detachment. Careful pre-operative planning and intraoperative Prophylactic Selerostomy may minimize the risk of complications. This presentation is meant to provide an overview and practical tips for safe … Continue reading
Classification of Angle Closure | Tin Aung[04:49]
Primary angle closure occurs when there is an anatomical obstruction of the aqueous humor outflow by the iris without a secondary pathological cause. We can identify several stages of the disease defined by the presence of certain structural and functional characteristics that define each stage. The stages have been termed as follows: Primary Angle Closure … Continue reading
How do I perform a non-penetrating glaucoma surgery? | Alain Bron[09:44]
In this presentation, you will find all the details on how to perform deep sclerectomy, one of the procedures for non-penetrating glaucoma surgery. This surgery is designed for open angle glaucomas and offers a much safer profile than trabeculectomy. However, the IOP-lowering effect is a bit less than trabeculectomy. The procedure does not require any … Continue reading
How do I teach a patient about how to put in eye drops? | Kessara Pathanapitoon[04:13]
One of the factors that is negatively correlated with adherence to topical glaucoma therapies is difficulty in applying drops. Only a small number of patients can correctly administer exactly one drop without touching the eye. Patients with more years of experience or given better education were likely to instill a single drop and have the … Continue reading
How should I treat glaucoma in pregnant and lactating patients? | Yvonne Buys[05:34]
There are multiple challenges and uncertainties related to the management of glaucoma management in women planning a pregnancy, during pregnancy, and during the breastfeeding period. The approach to treatment must be individualized considering the risks of treatment to both the mother and the fetus versus the risk of vision loss for the mother. It is … Continue reading
How do I perform a Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma? | Tony Realini[07:17]
In this presentation, I will share my approach to SLT in patients with POAG, including patient selection, the equipment and supplies I prefer, my technique, and post-procedure care.
Tips for intraoperative gonioscopy and how to perform goniosynechiolysis | Kazuhiko Mori[08:46]
Increasingly, glaucoma specialists require expertise in surgical gonioscopy, as lots of MIGS procedures with ab interno approaches utilize a surgical goniolens. Goniosynechialysis (GSL), which physically separates peripheral anterior synechiae from trabecular meshwork, also utilizes surgical goniolens. There are two types of surgical goniolens; direct type and double mirror type. Direct gonioprisms which have been widely … Continue reading
What visual field testing strategy should I use? (SITA Standard/Fast/Faster 30-2/24-2/24-2C) | Anders Heijl[05:56]
This video will discuss choosing SITA tests for glaucoma management. Original SITA Standard and SITA Fast strategies represented a change of paradigms: time-saving, very computer-intensive with maximum likelihood estimations in real time. SITA Faster is a further development of SITA Fast. Definitively detecting perimetric progression and measuring rate of progression usually requireat least 5 tests. … Continue reading
How is Suturolysis best performed? | Eytan Blumenthal[07:15]
Suturelysis (SL) is a powerful and relatively simple procedure enabling the opening of scleral flap (sub-Tenon) sutures utilizing an Argon-like (green) laser. It increases flow across the trabeculectomy fistula thus lowering intraocular pressure. During trabeculectomy, a scleral flap is created, which, if left unsutured, would flatten the anterior chamber and collapse the eye. Well-placed sutures … Continue reading
What is the best way to examine the optic nerve for early detection of glaucoma? | Remo Susanna[06:18]
The optic nerve examination is the most important component of the evaluation of a glaucoma patient. The appearance of the optic nerve can assist with diagnosing glaucoma and detecting its progression. It is irreplaceable in detecting nonglaucomatous causes of ONH cupping and visual field defects similar to those in glaucoma. A systematic process of disc … Continue reading
How do I perform a fornix based Trabeculectomy? | Fabian Lerner[07:01]
In this short video, I present my surgical technique of fornix-based trabeculectomy, step-by-step. No traction suture is used in cooperative patients. The conjunctiva is incised 1 mm from the limbus. After enlarging the incision, sub Tenon´s dissection is performed. One or more sponges soaked in a Mitomycin C (MMC) solution are applied. Cell sponges absorb … Continue reading
How do I perform the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant surgery? | Joseph Anthony Tumbocon[07:45]
Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery is usually indicated in patients that have a higher risk for failure with trabeculectomy with mitomycin or other types glaucoma surgeries. It allows immediate and controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in eyes with medically uncontrolled IOP with less risk for hypotony. A detailed step-by-step guide on conventional Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery … Continue reading
How do I perform a fornix based Trabeculectomy? | Sir Peng Khaw[08:37]
In this presentation, I describe how I carry out a fornix based trabeculectomy. The different surgical principles established through research and subsequent components of this operation have evolved into the ”Moorfields Safer Surgery System” which has increased the safety of trabeculectomy, particularly with the use of antimetabolites. The different antimetabolites and uses apart from sponge … Continue reading
Role of meditation and YOGA in glaucoma patients | Tanuj Dada[06:32]
YOGA is a mind-body intervention to achieve holistic health with key components including physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. While head-down physical postures can lead to a significant spike in IOP, recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation focused on the breath may be a useful adjunctive therapy, positively impacting the quality of life in glaucoma … Continue reading


Editorial Leads
Tanuj Dada (IN), Pradeep Ramulu (US)

Editorial Team
Deus Bigirimana (AU), Eytan Blumenthal (IL), Maria Carrasco (AR), Irene Copati (AR), Gustavo De Moraes (US), Ronnie George (IN), Carolina Gracitelli (BR), Marcelo Hatanaka (BR), Parul Ichhpujani (IN), Ingrida Januleviciene (LT), Christopher Leung (HK), Monisha Nongpiur (SG), Olusola Olawoye (NG), Zeynep Ozturker (TR), Rajul Parikh (IN), Harsha Rao (IN), Lisandro Sakata (BR), Chelvin Sng (SG), Min Hee Suh (KR), Xinghuai Sun (CN)